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Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that develops novel algorithms, methods and software tools for the analysis of biological data. Bioinformatics combines computer science, statistics, mathematics, and engineering to study and mine biological data. With the introduction of high throughput experiments, it has become a vital part of many areas of biology. Bioinformatics provides the methods and software tools for sequencing and annotating genomes and their observed mutations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The analysis of the results of whole genome/transcriptome sequencing aids in the simulation and modeling of DNA, RNA, protein structures, as well as molecular interactions. The study of gene expression data using machine learning and data mining techniques leads to the discovery of regulation mechanism related to disease conditions such as cancer. The application to the clinical field of the results provided by the analysis of genomic and biomedical data in order to improve human health is at the basis of Translational Bioinformatics. In experimental molecular biology, bioinformatics techniques such as image and signal processing allow extraction of useful results from large amounts of raw data, produced by microscopes and spectrometers. Bioinformatics also includes text mining techniques for knowledge extraction from biological literature and the development of ontologies to organize and query biological data. At a more integrative level, it helps to analyze, catalog and annotate with functional descriptions biological entities, such as genes, proteins, metabolic pathways, regulatory networks.

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